Mental Illness

Mental Illness:

  • Etiological: by cause
  • Pharmacological: by behavioural external descriptors

Major Groupings of Disorders:

  • Mood: Depression, Bi-Polar
  • Bi-Polar: type I (Mania +/- Depression)  type II (Depression + hypomania aka cyclothymia
  • Anxiety: Panic, Social phobia, OCD, PTSD
  • Psychotic: schizophrenic, schizoaffective, delusional
  • Personality: borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, antisocial

The Three D’s:

1. Depression: impaired physical and psychological health, hopelessness, despair, clinginess, tearfulness, agitation, impaired memory, concentration, energy and motivation

  • treatment: biological (ECT), psychosocial therapies, crisis  interventions, psychotherapy, increased social activity

2. Dementia: from Latin ‘loss or out of mind’.

  • treatment: cognitive enhancement compensation, environmental adaptations, pharmacological interventions, supportive/social strategies.

3. Delirium: disturbance of consciousness and change in cognition (reduced clarity of awareness of the environment, with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention)

  • treatment: assess and treat underlying cause, control environmental issues.

Common issues faced by older adults:

  • Rumination
  • bereavement
  • decreased physical activity
  • taken advantage of
  • fraud
  • aggression by and towards
  • aloneness
  • social stigma
  • medical issues
  • sensory impairments
  • isolation
  • ageism

Benefits of Recreation and Leisure:

  • Promote being and wellness at each stage of life
  • Allows expression of personal interests
  • Community involvement
  • Social interaction
  • Replaces boredom with activities

Barriers to Leisure:

  • Time
  • Transportation
  • Money
  • Stigma
  • Location
  • Lack of knowledge
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